Bacteria and viruses, including coronavirus, are present in droplets and in some cases on airborne suspended particulate matter.
Surgical masks and particulate matter filters, even those that meet N95 and N99 standards, are designed to filter particulate matter. Most are not effective in filtering viruses.
However, even when they do filter bacteria and viruses, these trapped microorganisms are still alive on the mask. Through natural breathing and handling (removing, storing, wearing), this poses a great infection risk, as the microorganisms can pass through, transfer to your hand, or some other surface. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 infection, can survive on surgical masks for days.
The greater the exposure to the virus, whether in critical environments like hospitals or when used for extended periods of time and/or reused, the greater the risk of infection.
If the mask were able to destroy the virus and other pathogens powerfully and continuously upon contact, such risk would be mitigated.